Machine To Machine (M2M) Protocols

According to Techopedia,

Machine to Machine (M2M)refers to a wireless or wired network setup that enables same type of devices andcapability to communicate freely.

Illustration: Quora

In simple words, M2M is – two machines communicating or exchanging data, without human interfacing or interaction. Example of M2M communication in this case would be ATM machines getting authorization to dispense cash.

IoT and M2M have similar promises: to transform the way the world operates. M2M and IoT are almost similar — the exception is IoT typically refers to wireless communications, whereas

M2M will refer to any two machines—wired or wireless—communicating with one another.

M2M is among the fastest-growing types of connected device technologies in the market right now, largely because M2M technologies can connect millions of devices within a single network.

In order to establish alignment and trust in otherwise unmoderated and unmanaged technologies, certain standards are created.

Leading M2M/IoT Standards and Protocols


OMADM (Open Mobile Alliance Device Management) is a device management protocol designed to manage mobile devices such as phones and tablets. OMA DM is ideal for small foot-print devices that have a constraint onbandwidth of communication.


MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport) is another M2M connectivity protocol. It was designed as a lightweight publish and subscribe messaging transport. It is ideal for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is very low.


TR-069 (Technical Report 069) is published by the Broadband Forum and entitled CPE WAN Management Protocol (CWMP). It defines an application layer protocol for remote management of end-user devices.

Google Thread

Google Thread is a network protocol developed by search engine giant Google. It focuses on low-power and security in IoT devices that use embedded data transmission via Wi-Fi, NFC, Bluetooth and/or ZigBee.

M2M Market Size and Share

According to a research by Zion Market Research, global machine to machine market was valued at approximately USD 18.96 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach approximately USD 25.24 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of around 5.3% between 2017 and 2022.

Security Concerns

While all of these advantages and future of M2M looks great, the downside is, there are certain security concerns with M2M protocol.

According to a new research, Hackers can leverage machine-to-machine (M2M) protocols to attack Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) systems.

Trend Micro monitored activity associated with these protocols over a period of four months and identified over 200 million MQTT messages leaked by hundreds of thousands of Internet-exposed brokers and servers.

Security professional have said that there are problems with these M2M protocols where they could be leveraged for targeted reconnaissance, industrial espionage, targeted attacks and lateral movement.

Following are a couple of recommendations by security professionals.

1. Run periodic checks using internet-wide scan services or tools to ensure that none of the sensitive data is inadvertently leaked through public IoT services. It is often the case that — for fast prototyping — test systems use insecure IoT servers, which are then left unchanged, even when supposed to run in live mode.

2. Stay up to date with the standards in this M2M space because this technology is evolving rapidly. The small footprint of these software may justify in-house development, so it is likely that organizations have chosen to develop their standard M2M technology rather than buy existing implementations.

That was a quick glimpse of M2M protocols! Hope you liked it…!

IoT in Recycling

The IOT can change the way waste collectors carry their operations, know more information about their bins and bring change in the method of waste collection.

It’s now possible to use IoT to gather real-time data on your recyclables to know how to best manage and monetize them, gather real-time data on your waste stream to reduce fees.

A comprehensive solution to Solid Waste Management (SWM) spans across five key areas in the SWM lifecycle, namely, Generation, Collection, Transportation, Treatment and Disposal.

Shortage of manpower and garbage vans is also a key challenge for collection and transportation.

IoT-enabled waste collection and transportation can bring in significant advantages in the overall implementation of waste management solutions. Specifically, the municipal corporations that have outsourced this work to independent contractors, can use IoT to track and monitor the contractors’ effectiveness.

Image based container sensors can help municipalities control costs and improve waste and recycling services in franchise systems.

At times, municipal waste collection operations focus on emptying containers according to predefined schedules. This is really inefficient.

Sensors in Big Belly Solar bins alert collection crews when bins are 85 per cent full too ensure that they are not allowed to overflow, but also are not emptied unnecessarily.

Adding to the smart city fabric, each Big Belly bin can transmit a WiFi platform to showcase local council information and retailer offers.

Compology‘s sensors can be instrumental in improving franchise services and also educating generators on Recycling habits.

The technology consultancy Navigant Research predicted last year that the global market for smart waste collection technologies will grow from $57.6 million (£45 million) in 2016 to over $223.6 million (£178 million) in 2025.

Here’s a look at how IoT is triggering innovative changes in the way recycling is handled across different countries.

In India, Persistent Systems has developed an IoT-enabled Solid Waste Management solution to address the collection and transportation of Solid Waste. It involves retrofitting existing garbage bins by adding connected sensors to make them “smart bins”. These sensors detect the level and weight of the garbage and transmit this information to a server deployed in the city’s Data Center through existing cellular infrastructure.

In Maltese Islands, as a strategy against unsightly overflowing, around 800 intelligent Recycling bins are installed across the country. Recycling cooperative Green park and Vodafone unveiled the first set of these iBins in Pembroke. The iBins are installed with smart technology such transmits data indicating their capacity levels across Vodafone’s New Narrowband Internet of Things network.

In the waste industry this could be through RFID which uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects, or GPS used to track objects from satellites.

In Rotterdam, Finnish firm Enevo is partnering with the local government to increase the use of its Smart Plan software in recycling collections. Using retrofit- friendly ultrasonic sonar technology to detect fill levels in communal containers at apartment blocks, the programme provides data analytics, fill-level forecasting, dynamic route planning and driver route guidance using in-cab tablet computers to optimise collection of the city’s paper and card waste containers.

Looking at all the developments in IoT for recycling, one can imagine great future for smart cities as the dreadful issue for waste management becomes streamlined by using IoT.

Voice Assistants

Hey Siri…!


Ok Google!


These words are now becoming household favorites. It is mesmerizing to see that one can control or get the things done using just their voice.

A voice assistant is a voice controlled computer software which can perform tasks or services of an individual.

Voice assistants are changing the way we interact with the brands. With Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, the number of use cases for voice-enabled apps is increasing every single day.

Voice assistants are currently available from below major brands

Apple Siri

Source: Siri – Wikipedia

Google Assistant

Source: Google Assistant – Wikipedia

Microsoft Cortana

Source: Cortana on HoloLens

Amazon Alexa


Voice Assistants Capabilities

There are many different ways through which a voice assistant is able to serve you. Some of them include:

  • Creating a To Do list

Pretty basic, with just your voice command, you can ask your voice assistant to remember to get milk from the dairy.

  • Scheduling

Many voice assistants replace the (now ancient) Personal Desktop Assistants(PDAs), where they can tell you the upcoming meetings with their location. With your instructions, they can also let meeting attendees know that you’re running late and they should start the conversation!

  • Search

Whether you prefer the brand’s own search engine or any other one, Voice assistants make your life easy by creating an interactive experience to your day-to-day internet searches.

  • Trends in your area

Based on your location, powered by Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, a voice assistant can fetch you customized offers, music and finally the movie reviews.

While this list of abilities is not exhaustive, every day there is some new “skill” is being developed by a voice assistant.


One would think that an assistant needs to be with you consistently, so ideal platform to use voice assistant will be a smart phone. But that’s not it! With Internet of Things, Smart Homes and Smart Cities are becoming a reality, so one would find voice assistant in your home in the form of a speaker and also on your laptop to expand the horizon of multitasking.

Amazon Alexa Smart Speaker

The leading smart speaker Amazon Echo enables you to use Alexa the voice assistant easily in your house. With innovative cases and capabilities, Alexa is giving it’s competition a touch challenge every day!

Google Home Smart Speaker

None other than Google has entered the Smart Speakers market with Google Home. Using the Wake Word – “Ok Google!”, you can use your Google Home enabled smart home devices to manage temperature, create ambience or even call your friends and family.


This voice assistant is available on various platforms. You can use Cortana on your laptops powered with Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile or Windows 8.1. Cortana will use Microsoft’s Bing Search to perform the necessary activity and other information intensive tasks.

Along with mobiles and laptops, Cortana is available on Invoke Smart Speaker, Microsoft Band, Surface Headphones, Xbox One, iOS, Android, Windows Mixed Reality.

Acceptance by Consumers

Adobe surveyed more than 1,000 consumers in United States, and the insights are pretty interesting. Thirty-six percent of consumers surveyed said they use voice to make a call, 31% do so for smart-home commands, 30% for shopping/ordering items, 17% for food delivery/takeout, and 16% for flight/hotel research.

This adaptation of voice skills encourages companies to innovate and the voice assistants are becoming smarter than ever!

Under the hood, voice assistants leverage natural language processing to decipher what you said, then they take respective actions.

Looking at Future

Voice assistants bring in a fresh new era of possibilities. A truly hands free experience where we will get detached from our screens. If you take the voice assistant in your car, you can understand the route to your destination talking and not by using your fingers on an interface.

In his own words, Mark Weiser, father of ubiquitous computing, we are entering an era of “Calm Technology”, where we can get things done with technology with minimal or no learning curve!

Hey Siri, thank the reader for reading this post! 🙂

Connected Cars

With increasing importance of automation, one would also want their travel to become automated or effortless.  Connected Car is gathering eyeballs ever since Great Britain has identified it as legitimate vehicle since 2015.

There are many different definitions of Connected Cars available on the Internet. From Wikipedia,

A connected car is a car that is equipped with Internet access, and usually also with a wireless local area network.

Another way of looking at connected car will be:

A connected car is a vehicle equipped with intelligent systems and services connected to the Internet.

As per a report from market research consulting firm Statistics MRC, the connected car market in 2017 accounted for $72.95 billion and is expected to reach $280.36 billion by 2026.

Let us look into the details of why Connected Cars are special in theory.

  • They act as a pivot for a couple of ecosystems to work together. Vehicle-To-Vehicle(V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure(V2I) create a communication channel between other cars and infrastructure like traffic lights.
  • Car speed and distance between the other vehicle can be adjusted using various sensors installed.
  • Voice recognition allows the cars to be handled by their respective owners only. Different meetings and appointments can be managed just by the voice of the owner. Taking to the next level, the usual chores and the To-Dos can also be done by voice.
  • The navigation system steers through the crowded city roads with no or minimal inputs from the driver.
Credits :

Looking at these points from practical implementation point of view, there are these observations from recent years.

  • With technology entering the automobile market, GPS navigation, reverse cameras have created a space for above theories to become a reality.
  • More and more attention is on passenger safety, regional transport authorities are now recognizing the value of technology to come up with basic norms like a seat belt indicator or airbags.

Having said this, connected cars domain is not really the bed of roses! When it comes to connected cars, new users are getting concerned about data privacy and possibility of hacking as well.

  • Many of the car parts are designed to run by microprocessors. These parts include accelerator pedal or the turn signal. Moreover, being viewed as a self-contained entity, a connected car is not paid with much concern.
  • While there are many car manufacturers which are taking this issue on priority, there is an equal percentage of the manufacturers who are not seeing this as a risk. So it is unclear whether the automotive industry identifies this as a problem.

The exciting future awaits where integration of AI and connected cars makes our travel from Point A to Point B completely effortless. Just by using an IP address, you car can now connect with your home as well as other cars on the road!

Amazon’s Hardware Event September 2018

Ruling the smart speakers market since 2015, Amazon always has something to showcase in the world of IoT. Amazon hosted a “surprise” hardware event on September 20th, 2018 at their Seattle headquarters.

Hosted at Spheres, Amazon’s urban botanical gardens, there was an impressive line-up of Alexa-enabled hardware products and others.

Without further ado, let us get introduced to the new Alexa powered members.

A new Echo Dot

Trying to take the current Echo Dot experience at the next level with same price, new Echo Dot features a larger 1.6 inch driver. It has better sound quality, enhanced bass reduction with the same bluetooth and aux port for connectivity.

Courtesy –

It costs the same $49.99.

Echo Auto

It’s time to take your favorite voice assistant on road! Now you can connect Echo Auto to Alexa through your phone and play over your car’s speakers.

Courtesy –

The Amazon Echo Auto, priced at $50 is a dashboard accessor that can listen to your voice on noisy roads too! It will be much easier to get directions just by using your voice, isn’t it?

Echo Input

While there are not much details on this, Echo Input will be the least expensive and tiniest Echo device. It contains far-field microphone array for Alexa Commands. The form factor will be the incredibly slim structure with 12.5mm thickness.

Courtesy –

Amazon Echo Input will be for sale later this year at $34.99.

2nd Gen Echo Plus

This revamped Echo Plus comes with a fabric design, priced at $150. It has got a better sound with capability to act as smart home hub for your smart home devices.

Courtesy –

The local voice controls enable offline commands, so in case if the internet goes out, you’ll still be able to turn off the light.

Alexa Guard

The gradual entry in home security – Alexa Guard. It integrates all Echo and smart devices to help users protect their homes while they are away.

When you are leaving your house, all you have to do is command Alexa that you’re leaving. Alexa will then listen for sounds like breaking glass or smoke or carbon monoxide alarms. Taking it to the next level, it can alert your security provider as well.

AmazonBasics Microwave

This Microwave has an “Ask Alexa” button that takes advantage of Alexa Connect Kit. There are “dozens of quick-cook voice presets, so you can cook just by asking Alexa.”

Courtesy –

It can also communicate with nearby Echo. So you can ask Alexa to add extra minutes to speed up the process of heating up your food. Currently priced at $59.99, AmazonBasics Microwave will be released on November 14, 2018 to the US customers.

Echo Wall Clock

Connecting via Alexa to bluetooth speakers, Amazon is turning to everyday devices expanding the horizon for voice commands.

You can set timers, alarms and change the time using your voice and alexa commands.

Amazon Smart Plug

A logical addition to Alexa world, this is an Alexa compatible plug that goes into an outlet.

Courtesy –

Available at $24.99, the Amazon Smart Plug will allow voice control of things like lamps, air conditioners, coffee makers, etc.

Echo Link and Link Amplifier

There is Echo Link and Echo Link Amp offered by Amazon provide ability for your sound systems to enter the Alexa universe. Echo Link can connect to a receiver or amplifier, while Echo Link Amp adds inputs and an amplifier section.

This should really excite the audiophiles out there! Echo Link will be priced at $200 and Echo Link Amp will be priced at $300.

2nd Gen Echo Show

While this looks like the old version, 2nd Gen Echo Show is bigger now with a 10-inch display. It is also equipped with powerful drivers for better sound, providing 8-microphone array.

Courtesy –

There will be a Skype app as well, so that you won’t have to use Alexa voice app. Priced at $229.99, it will be in stock by November 6th, 2018.

Fire TV Recast

Focused on live-recording, there will be echo-show like functionality to any display. Fire TV Recast’s channels are integrated right into Fire TV channel guide. You can schedule and delete recordings using Alexa.

Courtesy –

Tagged as over-the-air DVR, Fire TV Recast will be available on November 14, 2018 at $229.99.

IoT Protocols

In this post, we will understand different available IoT protocols. If we look at the communication aspect between the different components of IoT, we want to have a common protocol which makes this communication streamlined.

Protocols come to the rescue in this scenario. At a higher level, managing the handshakes and data transfer with “Things”, one can easily think of the I in IoT and conclude Internet protocols are most relevant and important. Along with this, there is a requirement of unifying the communication between different layers which may not be limited to Internet protocols.

Based on your application, it is very important to select proper protocol giving due respect to the type, layer and function to be performed by the device.

Let us dive into the different protocols. We will start with our beloved Bluetooth protocol.


When it comes to bluetooth, we don’t need a special introduction to this protocol! This protocol is being used both as plain Bluetooth of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE).

Predominantly, plain Bluetooth is used for high data rate applications such as audio applications/streaming. BLE is used for low data rate applications such as NFC communication for accepting payment wirelessly.

As per a recent development, Bluetooth 5 is being looked as a great contender for IoT applications.


It is an acronym of IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 6LoWPAN can communicate with 802.15.4 devices on an IP network like WiFi.

This protocol enables the smallest devices with limited processing ability to transmit information using an internet protocol.

A good example for application of 6LoWPAN can be entertainment applications in home, office and factory environments. Also, smart metres and smart grids get benefits from this protocol.


WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity. For data extensive applications, where bluetooth capacities are exhausted, WiFi comes to a rescue. Typically, WiFi devices can provide bandwidth upto 10 metres, but by using private antennas, one can expect an extension upto 30 kms. The only issue with WiFi is the extensive power consumption.

WiFi Protocols

Very popular WiFi protocol is IEEE 802.11, but recently due to various types of demands in terms of type, size and data speed, below new versions are introduced since the first one in 1997.

  • 802.11a
  • 802.11b
  • 802.11g
  • 802.11n
  • and 802.11ac

Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)

Along with MQTT, Constrained Application Protocol(CAP) is emerging as most promising for small devices where low size and low bandwidth are the primary constraints. It consists of constrained devices called “nodes” to communicate with the wider Internet using similar protocols.

CoAP works similar to HTTP client/server model. Evidently, it is based on Web architecture. So in a practical world, a component level equipment as sensor or actuator can communicate with other devices in the IoT ecosystem.

This protocol finds it’s extensive use in the domains – Smart Homes, Smart Grid and other Smart Environments.

Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)

One of the M2M protocols, Message Queue Telemetry Transport is used to transmit device data to servers. It used publish-scribe communication pattern. If there are wireless networks with varied levels of latency, MQTT is a great protocol to employ.

In MQTT, the message gets transferred between a Client, that can be a message Publisher and a message Broker. The publisher sends data on the MQTT broker specifying a definite topic in a message.

There are some specific messages for the communication with the Broker. The main types are-

  • Connect: establish connection to message broker
  • Disconnect: break the connection to message broker
  • Subscribe: subscribe to a topic on message broker
  • Publish: publish data on a topic within message broker
  • Unsubscribe: unsubscribe the topic

A typical application of MQTT protocol can be an action based on Facebook notifications.

As the development in IoT world progresses, many tech giants are coming up with their own protocols to support the future ahead. Stay tuned with the blog to keep yourself updated!

Connected Devices

When you Google the term “Connected Devices”, (as always) you come across a plethora of definitions. While there is no any “source of truth” for what a connected device means, it includes smartphones, TVs, tablets. A very simple example can be derived from the example stated here in this design fiction, if you inform Amazon Alexa (a voice assistant) for a certain task to be done in the evening, your Amazon Alexa mobile app will inform you about that task at a specific time.

This means, we are effectively dealing with an ecosystem which is connected by various mediums. These mediums can be handheld devices, laptops or computers. The example we saw illustrates a typical scenario in a connected home. Extrapolating it to a city level, a traffic signal controller (TS1), which takes inputs from previous the similar controller in the previous lane/intersection (TS0) becomes a good example of connected device.

Let us dive deep into the connected devices.

Birth of Connected Devices

The first device to get connected over internet was a Coke Machine in early 1980s. This machine at Carnegie Mellon University was connected over the Internet, programmers could check the status of machine and see if there is a cold drink waiting for them.

Interestingly, the term “connected device” was coined by Kevin Ashton co-founder and executive director of the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1999. So, there were examples of using Connected Device way before the term came into vocabulary.

What does this mean for IoT Revolution?

As the number of connected devices increase, the medium extensively used to connect them is Internet. So, as IoT revolution progresses in the later part of 21st century, the Things in Internet of Things will inevitably will be connected devices.

A research conducted by Cisco Internet Solutions Group predicts 50 billion connected devices by 2020. This is huge! We are already looking at buzz words such as Connected Cities and Connected Cars, this number is not a surprise at all!

Connected Devices Examples

Smart Homes

Nowadays, in many countries, there is an increase in demand for secure homes. When a real estate company is coming up with a residential area, they are making extensive use of Internet of Things to connect the voice assistants to manage energy consumption and put the family’s favorite show with voice control. This is already in development at Bengaluru, India.


Also, according to a report by Statista, due to plentiful digital assistants and compatible products, Indian Smart Home market is predicted to hit 7.2% by 2020.

Wearable Tech

With consumers making conscious choice to track their activities on a daily basis, Apple shown an upper hand in smartwatch market in Q2, 2018. Alongside, we have brands like Garmin, Amazon Fitbit which are providing the users with great features to create a fitness regime.

While health remains the topmost priority for consumers, with AR/VR devices, there is an inclination towards added level of user experience.

Smart Cities

With increasing number of vehicles and requirement to conserve energy, Smart Cities are making use of connected devices more than ever. Pollution, traffic congestion, shortage of energy supplies are making a good case for using connected devices in each corner of the city.

Industrial IoT

Along with Internet of Thing(IoT), Industrial IoT(IIoT) is also attracting great traction. As Jeff Immelt, CEO of GE Electric puts it, IIoT is “beautiful, desirable and investable” asset. With more and more industries needing ability to track goods, information interchange of available inventory, quicker delivery of goods, Industrial IoT is finding it’s extensive use.

According to GE, the improvement industry productivity will generate $10-$15 trillion in GDP worldwide over next 15 years.

Apart from these domains, Connected Cars is also one of the other trending domains.

Looking into the Future

With IoT making it’s appearance in consumer as well as industrial world of needs, one can say without doubt that we will be able to see many connected devices which will create an ease in our lives. Protocols such as Wifi, Bluetooth, LPWAN, Physical Web are proving useful in converting the innovative, creative IoT idea into reality.

IoT Design Fiction

It is a usual week day and you wake up as Amazon Alexa turns on your favorite radio station playing energetic songs appropriate for the morning. You drag yourself out of bed brushing your teeth as the mirror on the wall displays what’s making news!

It’s time for the jog around the park, you wear the Apple watch and start the workout for next 30 minutes or so. The watch is connected to Health app in your iPhone, tracking every single step that you take towards burning that big fat meal at your friend’s wedding last weekend. Siri provides you an accurate track of the workout so far and what’s remaining to reach your goal.

As you reach your home, watch pops up a message to congratulate you on your progress towards the goal and the calories burnt during the workout. While you are away, Alexa has already synced up with your fridge to create a To Do list for any items needing refill. The list is updated automatically in Evernote and a reminder is set for the evening.

It’s time for breakfast! Your command to review today’s list of tasks motivates you to spearhead into the day. Before you start with the breakfast, it’s the picture time! You take a picture of your breakfast in phone and your phone automatically calculates the calories you are about to consume. After this energy boosting breakfast, you are ready to start your day.

Sensing your commute time, your garage door is already open as you get into your car. The car is connected to your work calendar and the Heads Up Display (HUD) shows the meetings during the day and their respective locations across the city. With your voice, you turn off the HUD, eyes on the road first! 🙂

As the day progresses ahead, you are reminded by your watch to drink plenty of water. You keep yourself hydrated going through your tasks for the day. Around lunch time, you click the photograph of your lunch (as always) to know the count of calories. Here we go! There’s a notification on your watch to have a brisk walk post lunch, great! Everything is connected, so your phone is already tracking your calorie goals for the day. As you eat it is getting recorded, and as you walk/jog/run, it is recorded too!

You come back after the brisk walk to immerse yourself in work. Evening time approaches, you are reminded of groceries and to-do list for the anniversary that is approaching in a few days. You complete your day at work asking for directions to the best bakery in town to book a cake in advance. As you are driving through the busy roads of city, you are reviewing options for your anniversary gateway. The phone helps you to finalize the booking for that resort as well using your voice. Payment is done directly from your bank account.

Next, you are passing across the Market, the phone reminds you of groceries which are communicated by Alexa. You get down from your car and then shop the required things. This shop is cashier-free, so it is billed directly to your debit/credit card as saved in the associated store app.

As you reach home, Alexa greets you with the synopsis for your favorite show in the evening. Before you are attracted towards the thought of watching TV, you see your spouse staring at you in anger. This is an indication of dinner time!

You sit down quietly on dinner table finally using the Do Not Disturb (DND) feature on your phone. A clever technology user, you’ve put it off just for 30 minutes, because you know something more is coming up next!

Your watch reminds you of your post-dinner walk around the house. As you walk, you listen to your favorite audiobook on Audible.

After this technology driven day, you are about to doze off. Alexa has already taken care of the ambient light and music in your bedroom. You conclude your day feeling grateful about the technology around!

What is Internet of Things?

The Definition

According to Techopedia,

Internet of Things (IoT) is a computing concept, that describes the idea of everyday physical objects being connected to the internet and being able to identify themselves to other devices.

In past decade, there has been a steady increase in IoT devices every year. In very basic terms, IoT means connecting all the objects or devices that you see around using the incredible power of Internet.
Recently, there has been a pushing focus on connected devices as Alexa, Siri. These devices are under the umbrella of IoT. This post will introduce the world of IoT to you with the architecture, the currently available applications and finally illustrating some concerns.


Internet of things is a combination of following three parts:

1. Sensors and Actuators
A physical quantity such as sound, temperature, moisture, etc. is measured in this particular part. This particular part acts as a transducer to convert the physical quantities into electrical signal.
2. Connectivity
This part is the communication medium with which the parts are supposed to exchange information or talk to each other. Predominantly, the examples are WiFi, Bluetooth or BLE, LoPAN, etc.
3. Processes
The ultimate part where the consumers get involved in. This part involves important decision making or data integration. It can also be seen as the application area for any given IoT idea.

Here’s a quick diagram to explain it all.


There are extensive applications of IoT which you can see in below categories
– Consumer
– Commercial
– Industrial
– Infrastructure
I will take you through one example each from above categories.

Smart Homes
With advent of IoT more and more tech houses are going towards the Smart Homes phenomenon. For instance Google Homes and Apple Homes are increasingly becoming popular. Using smart home, your fridge would know when you are running out of milk and you can set the temperature/light of your bedroom according to the time of the day.

Thanks to the devices such as wireless sensors and GPS, now one can track a vehicle and also see the conditions of cargo and relevant assets. There are many projects which use these type of tracking for effective delivery and tracking during transportation from one place to the other.

Industrial IoT, or more familiar IIoT, is identified as industrial subset of IoT. Currently, predictive maintenance is the important focus area. After implementing IIoT, experts suggest it will generate $12 trillion of global GDP by 2030.

With more and more metropolitan cities paying great attention towards the safety of their people, monitoring and controlling operations of infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks, etc. becomes very crucial task. IoT is currently helping the industry by time saving, cost reduction, etc.

Concerns with IoT

As the technology is getting ahead in the game, there are many pros as well as cons are cropping up. We will look at the most important concern with IoT – Privacy and Security Concern.

Privacy and Security Concern
With IoT, there is a potential threat for privacy invasion. As the world moves towards devices which monitor us, control over collected data from consumer carries a major importance. Security has become a nagging problem in relevance of adopting IoT, sometimes the consumers are ending up abandoning IoT devices and services.

The First Post!

Welcome to IoT Gabfest! Your very own place to understand and discuss valuable information related to Internet of Things!
It is my pleasure to have you on my blog, hope the content proves useful to you!


First, I will start with my introduction. My name is Aditya Kulkarni and you can call me Aadi. Professionally, I am into project management and one of my interest areas is to keep in touch with latest technology trends. Once I get to know about something, I always feel it is my responsibility to tell the world about it!
With the same intention, I have created this blog for Internet of Things.

This post will help you understand:

    What this blog is going to do and
    What it is NOT going to do.

I wanted to create a forum first, but I thought of taking a step back and understand my audience better! Just in case you are curious, the word Gabfest means – discussion or conversation. I know you’ve googled it already!

What is this blog about?
My aim for creating this blog is to consolidate all the available information about Internet of Things. As an aspiring Internet of Things enthusiast, I have been through all the hassles of searching the web and spending endless time getting to the bare minimum of Internet of Things.
There are many trending things like connected homes, cities which are in relation to Internet of Things, which go unnoticed just because the search is not directed in the correct direction.
Also, there are many webinars happening, which introduce the latest trend. Mind you, these webinars are FREE, but we just don’t get to know about them!
So, my vision is – Provide a centralized space on web for the IoT enthusiast to enrich his/her IoT knowledge!

Each blog post will create a conversation. Please use the comments section extensively to discuss and clear all your doubts related to IoT. I am (obviously) expecting you to invite your friends to join the discussion too, so watch out for that social media plugin along with the post!

What this blog is NOT about?
This blog is not about just a site dictionary of IoT related things. I do admit that I will have to redirect you all to the particular sites/pages for detailed info, but I don’t intend to provide you a dry and mundane list of related websites. There are plenty of other sites for that and you can utilize them as per your convenience!

This blog is not about just marketing some content for the sake of it! If I see any value in the content, then only it will be on this blog. And I know my readers will definitely correct me if I am not following my own words!

As I go ahead with this blog, I expect you to be that critique which inspires me to write more and provide you more content!

Thanks for reading the post in its entirety! Feel free to browse the blog and provide any suggestions in the suggestions box!